In this work I will show that evolution theory is faulty. First I will determine essential factors in science making. Then I will examine evolution as a phenomenon and show that evolution is impossible as a scientific phenomenon.
The purpose of science is to study phenomena of the world and to create theories, which explain the phenomena.
There are two kinds of phenomena: phenomena of the real world (a scientific phenomenon) and phenomena of the imaginary world (a non-scientific phenomenon). Real world phenomena can be divided into basic phenomena, which are predictable and stochastic phenomena, which are unpredictable. Also processes that are caused by the phenomena can be divided in the same way.
3.1. Basic phenomenon
A basic phenomenon causes a predictable process, which always has the same direction.
Gravity is a basic phenomenon and the process it causes, the falling of objects towards ground is predictable. Objects are always falling into the same direction.|
3.2. Stochastic phenomenon
A stochastic phenomenon causes a stochastic process. A stochastic process does not have a stable direction because itís direction can change. Therefore a stochastic phenomenon can not be explained by a scientific theory (see 5.1.). A stochastic process can only be estimated and modelled.
Note. In this work I will call all phenomena, which cause a twoway process, stochastic. Strictly speaking all these processes are not purely stochastic, but different variations of randomness. The important thing is that the phenomenon can cause a twoway process.
Earth's athmosphere is a stochastic phenomenon and also the variation of air temperature is a stochastic process. Air temperature changes in random way and it does not have a stable direction. |
Observations originate always from processes caused by scientific phenomena (from the real world) and they can be achieved with human senses or with measuring devices. But it is important to understand, that we do not always know for sure the real source of the observation ie. the phenomenon that causes the process.
5.1. Scientific theory
Empiricist philosopher Karl Popper has determined that "a theory that can be falsified is a scientific theory. It is easy to obtain confirmations, or verifications, for nearly every theory - if we look for confirmations." A scientific theory can only be used to explain the basic phenomena, because a scientific theory can have only one claim, which explains the phenomenon and determines its direction.
Newton's gravity theory claims that Earth is pulling objects towards its surface (ie. objects are falling towards the ground). This theory can be falsified by demonstrating that objects are hovering in the air or that they are falling towards the sky. However experiments will show that objects are always falling towards the ground. Therefore we can conclude that Newtons's theory is a scientific theory and it is true.|
5.2. Non-scientific theory
According to Karl Popper ďa theory that can not be falsified with any observation is not a scientific theory.Ē A non-scientific theory can not be falsified because it includes all possible claims. A non-scientific theory can be used to explain a stochastic phenomenon, but it does not have any scientific value because in practice it does not present any claim.
A non-scientific Newton's-Lonka's gravity theory claims that objects are falling towards the ground or towards the sky and that they can also hover in the air. Even though our experiments will show that objects are always falling towards the ground, we can not falsify the claim of the theory. It is always true despite the direction of the falling objects.|
The variation of air temperature is a stochastic process, which is here explained by a non-scientific theory: temperature is increasing or temperature is decreasing. Although the claim of the theory is always true, it does not explain anything. If a stochastic process is explained by a scientific theory: temperature is increasing, it does not make things any better. The claim is either true or false.|
Letís gather together results so far into form of laws.
Law of the natural phenomena:
- NATURAL PHENOMENA CAN BE DIVIDED INTO BASIC PHENOMENA AND STOCHASTIC PHENOMENA.
Laws of the basic phenomenon:
- THE PROCESS CAUSED BY A BASIC PHENOMENON HAS ALWAYS THE SAME DIRECTION.
- ONLY A BASIC PHENOMENON CAN BE EXPLAINED BY A SCIENTIFIC THEORY.
Laws of the stochastic phenomenon:
- A STOCHASTIC PHENOMENON CAUSES A TWOWAY PROCESS.
- A STOCHASTIC PHENOMENON CAN NOT BE EXPLAINED BY A SCIENTIFIC THEORY.
- THE PROCESS CAUSED BY A STOCHASTIC PHENOMENON CAN ONLY BE ESTIMATED AND MODELLED.
6. Notes about science making
I have determined important factors in science making, but the most important factor is still missing and it is the science maker, the human. As we know human is capable of making errors and there lurks a great danger in the process of science making. No process is more reliable than the weakest point of it. Factors of science making can be combined in different ways. Here I will choose as examples only the two extreme ends. If we combine a basic phenomenon and a scientific theory we are on a safe path. Even if the claim of the theory would be false, we could correct it with only one observation because the process caused by the basic phenomenon has always the same direction.
From the science point of view the most problematic situation occures if we combine a imaginary phenomenon and a non-scientific theory. Although all our observations originate from processes caused by real world phenomena applying a non-scientific theory causes that all observations support the theory and thereby confirm the existence of the imaginary phenomenon. Furthermore the non-scientific theory can be modified according to the new observations. We must remember that althoug there are rules and laws governing scientific theories and the process of science making itself, there is no law that can impede the process of science making from going into the non-scientific path because there is always the human factor involved.
7. Evolution theory
The forms of the evolution theory are so multiple that it is difficult to conclude what evolution really is. Books and web are full of evolution theory specifications and proofs of evolution. However nowhere there is the definition of the opposite claim of the evolution theory nor is there the definition of the observation which dismisses the theory. This is a shame for the whole scientific community. In order to maintain credibility science makers must know as well the opposite claims and observations that dismisses the theory they support as they know the theory and observations they are supporting.
My questions are: What is the opposite claim of the evolution theory? What is the observation that dismisses the evolution theory?
But letís have a look at the evolution as a phenomenon. In practice we have two possibilities: evolution is either a basic phenomenon or a stochastic phenomenon.
7.1. Evolution as a basic phenomenon
If evolution would be a basic phenomenon, the process it causes would have a stable direction and it could be explained by a scientific theory. In this case the theory explaining evolution could include only one claim, which would also determine the direction of the process caused by the phenomenon. We could also determine the observation that supports the theory. Furthermore we could determine the opposite claim (theory) and the observation that would support it. But where are these theories and observations supporting their opposite claims?! I will answer you: they do not exist!
In addition the basic phenomena are the most simple phenomena, which cause only a oneway and a very simple process. It is impossible that a basic phenomenon could produce complicated information. None of the well known basic phenomena produce complicated information: gravity, heat dissipation, earthís rotation etc...
7.2. Evolution as a stochastic phenomenon
If evolution would be a stochastic phenomenon, the process it produces would not have a stable direction and it could not be explained by a scientific theory. It could only be estimated statistically and modelled mathematically. In practice evolution would be the only stochastic phenomenon that is producing complicated information instead of a stochastic process. Or is evolution producing both, a stochastic process and complicated information? Even in that case it would be a unique phenomenon. But it is impossible that a stochastic process with no stable direction or any purpose could produce the creature who has written these lines.
I have shown that evolution can not be a basic phenomenon nor a stochastic phenomenon. This means that evolution as a phenomenon does not exist. It is only imagination and as such it is the biggest misstep in the science history of the mankind.
Now reader understands that one is dealing with something bigger than life, with the creator of life, with God! But can we argue about the existence of God? Isn't it an issue of belief? The answer, which is disgusting to so many is yes. We can argue about the issue of belief. Science itself does not restrict by any means the philosofical nature of the issue that is suitable for debate. Every issue is suitable for scientific debate. But this fact has not been understood by so many of the scientists and actually they have not understood the most important thing in science making. And that is the form of the scientific theory, which is determined by Karl Popper. Finally I will show that even an issue of belief is suitable for scientific debate. There is an example from the very near history of the mankind between a majority group and a minority group about a debate of an issue of belief called Evolution.
9. To support defence
According to the first law of thermodynamics energy can not be created or destroyed but it can be converted from one form into another. Matter can be converted into energy. Energy can be converted into matter. E=mc≤.
10. Final words
If you find any mistakes, please report to the author and if you don't, then thank God!
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