A new theory of 4-dimensional universe
by Pekka Virtanen

Vers. 2.12, updated April 14, 2014


The most important theoretical achievement of natural sciences is the old idea of atom. The matter can not be divided endlessly into still smaller parts. The idea of atom hints that in the world exists a special spatial scale, the scale of atom. Today the physicists generally believe that all phenomena in the nature appear from the effects of quantum level. All phenomena appear from the level of one scale. The scale is always connected to the space. What is empty room or space? What kind of structure and of properties does the empty space have? Does the shortest indivisible length exist? Are the directions quantized in the smallest scale? The existence of one special scale refers to quantized space or cell-structured space. In that case the space can be described with the unit vectors, which span the cells. This kind of space is absolute, but it is not the same as Newton’s absolute space. It is not possible to observe the empty space directly, but it is possible to examine its structure theoretically. When the space is depicted as cell-structured, several strange quantum effects can be understood or interpreted in a new way. And how does the observer’s space appear from the cell-structured space? Coarsened observations are needed for that. The classical observer’s space appears geometrically as an emergent property of absolute space. There exist two different images of one space, coarsened and noncoarsened.

D-theory is a new interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is based on the hypothesis, which defines the structure of space. The cell-structured space of D-theory will solve the measurement problem of quantum mechanics. It will, for example, produce the Lorentz transformations, which the Theory of Relativity is based on.
  When the mathematics is suitable to describe the effects of nature and it is an abstract part of the world, must the exhaustive physical theory be able to describe also the basics of mathematics, such as the origin of the sets of numbers. The space is also a mathematical concept and the space combines the physical world to the basics of mathematics.

The physicists have tried to interpret the quantum mechanics over 70 years and no satisfactory interpretation is found. Observer’s consciousness seems to be a part of the measurement process and a lot of useless text is written about it. The model of cell-structured space gives a new point of view on the role of consciousness in quantum mechanics. Also another issue in interpretation, the non-locality, is cleared up with help of the space model and the violation of Bell’s inequality. The non-locality is a strong evidence for validity of the used model. The third issue in interpretation is the wave function of a particle. It is a mathematical abstraction. It has in D-theory a direct connection to absolute space, which is not unique for a macroscopic observer because of its structure. Thus for example the place of an undetected free particle is not unique and the particle looks like a wave. A measurement however gives for the particle its place in the linear and unique observer’s space or in other words the wave function of the particle “collapses” simultaneously everywhere.

Different kind of rotations in symmetry spaces are fundamental in Standard model of QM, as well so called gauge principle. They have direct connections to the properties of absolute space. The rotations of a macroscopic stick in cell-structured space are length-preserving. Finally stays left a modest question “What is everything?". D-theory shows that it is impossible to get answer to this question. One abstraction stays always left in the model. But only one.


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April 14.04. 2014